Inside a Huge PCB Factory - in China

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Strange Parts : This video is because of you! I went through all of the comments from the previous factory videos, and seeing inside a PCB factory was one of your top requests. So keep the suggestions coming! I'll try and make as many of them happen as I can.

Bassem B. : Is she giving you a tour or are you giving her a tour? Haha :D fascinating factory, great video, documentary level!

BiggityBoggityBoo : Why are people complaining about him repeating everything she said? He's doing it on purpose so we can fully comprehend and actually hear what it is she's saying. Without his commentary I would have missed a lot of what she was saying and had to replay and turn things up just so the details weren't missed. His repetition is also for clarification, so that something hasn't been lost in translation. He repeats back to her what he understood about what she said, so that something wasn't misunderstood.

Nori-Atnep Lynobrac : The PTH (plating through-hole) process is very complicated but I'll try my best to describe what's happening. ----- DESMEAR -----{1,2} It all begins with the desmear which usually consists of 3 different process baths and is necessary for two reasons. First of all, one has to remove the so-called smear (all the stuff that forms due to high temperatures during the (laser)drilling process), debris and dirt. The other reason for the desmear is to roughen the surface so that the deposited copper adheres better. The first bath in the desmear process is called sweller and contains chemicals that permeate into the cavities of the base material (the glass fiber epoxy resin composite) thereby letting the base material swell up, hence the name. The second bath is often referred to as the actual desmear and contains a concentrated solution of alkali permanganate and hydroxide. Under these conditions organic materials, such as the smear, decompose and glass is etched back. The third bath contains reducing agents that help to get rid of permanganate and manganese dioxide residues. ----- PRE-TREATMENT ----- The next process step is usually referred to as the pre-treatment. It is composed of up to 5 process baths. Please keep in mind that i'm only explaining the most common type of process which is an ionogenic palladium activation process (other activation processes such as colloidal palladium (as explained in a recent video by applied science) and direct plating processes that work without any but one pre-treating bath also exist and are used in the industry). (1) Conditioner The conditioner contains chemicals that help the activator to bind to the surface of the base material and copper. (2) Etch Cleaner The Etch Cleaner contains agents that remove oxide layers on any superficial copper. (3) Pre-Dip This is a bath containing chemicals that protect the activator from drag-in and helping the activator to get even into the smallest VIAs. (4) (Ionogenic Palladium) Activator The activator basically contains cationic palladium compounds that can bind to the base material. Check out the palladium price in order to understand why this process is so expensive. (5) Reducer{3} The reducer contains reducing agents, that reduce the cationic palladium [Pd(2+)] to elemental palladium Pd(0). This is important in the subsequent step, as the Pd(0) acts as a catalyst. ----- COPPER PLATING -----{4} Following the pre-treatment comes the electroless copper bath (ECB). This bath is used to deposit a thin layer of copper (usually around 1 µm give or take) that makes the whole PCB conductive so that it can then be plated in a conventional galvanic copper bath. Besides copper the ECB contains a reducing agent, alkali hydroxides and complexing/chelating agents as well as often stabilizers. The Pd(0) on the surface of the PCB catalyzes a chemical reaction in which the reducing agent is able to reducer the cationic copper Cu(2+) to elemental copper Cu(0). Since this reaction is autocatalytic it keeps on going once the palladium is covered in copper. However, the copper deposition using an ECB is very slow, expensive and doesn't give a nice surface finish. Therefore, the PCB is only treated for a short period of time and a galvanic copper bath is used in order to plate the desired thickness (commonly around 25 µm). The galvanic copper bath contains different chemicals (called leveler, brightener and suppressor) that help with via filling, surface finish, etc. . Keep in mind that the overall process leads to an entirely copper covered PCB so structuring is once more necessary. Afterwards the superficial copper tracks, pads and so on are covered with tin in an immersion tin process or with gold in a nickel/gold process. This is necessary because soldering to the bare copper is very difficult since copper oxide layers will trouble the solder adhesion. ----- References ----- {1} J. Kirmann, X. Roizard, J. Pagetti, et al., J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 1998, 12 (4), 383–397 (doi: 10.1163/156856198X00100). {2} K. L. Mittal., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 1976, 13 (1), 19–25 (doi: 10.1116/1.568850). {3} O. A. Sadik, H. Xu, A. Sargent., J. Electroanal. Chem., 2005, 583 (2), 167–175 (doi: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2005.05.013). {4} M. Paunovic., Mod. Electroplat., 2010, 1, 433–446 (doi: 10.1002/9780470602638). If you don't have access to these publications, try using sci-hub... looks dodgy, is used by many scientists=)

mikami sham : Incredible video, I'm Chinese, I also find Lily's English is limited, so I'm so thankful Strange Parts translated them into English-friendly language. THIS, is like what I'm seeing in Discovery Channel!!

sdguy123 : You were kinda freaking them out with the constant sudden hand movements.

Xavier Ancarno : Please go to a battery cell factory - Lipo or Li-ion

Sa Sa : omg let her talk lol

reda Khaidar : 23:20 Windows XP never die XD

Jr Sarath : When you know everything - SHE : Yeah

Dixfer : I want to learn more...about Lilly.

lithiumpowerwall.com : You guys are stupid . If he doesnt explain we will be lost . He has been over there for a while putting there broken English together. Wtf let me try to explain in her language.

Deus Ex Machina : The Chinese used to make paper, PCB's seem like the modern version of that.

River Flow : There's something about this child like curiosity that this guy has.

Wahyu Eko Romadhon : My pcb is in video :D

Matrix8369 : This was an incredible video! Its amazing how much access they let you have to be able to show each step. I had a lot of fun learning just how many steps there actually are in making a board , and to think they can get it done in roughly 24 hours. Thats almost TO efficient lol.

Vašek Dvořák : Can you say something ? Yeah | And what ? Yeah | Is this a good video ? Yeah | Will there be another one ? Yeah | Thank you. Yeah :-D :-D :-D

Shiraaj Adam : I feel scotty is bullying lily....lily is always saying yeah

bobby burress : Cool beans....advise more decaf I agree with others you should've let her talk more,but you do a great job!!!

gorav dyan : If this dude was not in there I wouldn't have understood anything she said... She's all like.... Yah.... Yah.... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah... Yah...

Marco Reps : Where are the piles of JLCPCB cardboard pens? ;)

Flowmoshun : It's nice to see just how electronics are manufactured in China without any propaganda.

captain Liang : damn!!! I work in Shenzhen as an electronic engineer for more than 8 years. JLCPCB offers a very nice price for PCB samples, and the quality is not bad. every time I need to make a proof of my private less than 6 layers PCB, it is always my first choice.

Chris Humble : Way to be rude to the expert and talk over her the entire time.

Nate : Now if only they would send me my order from 4 months ago.

李政顯 : And some westerners still think that Chinese people are working in a 1000 men big factory and drill the holes one by one by hand..

Playonce : I dont know why she was with him, He wasnt asking any questions expect making all the narration. She just said yea ya YAH! all the time. and where did this other engineer Chinese guy went?

cocojos : it's look like you talk to fast :D

Weto Low : I used to work for one in the U.S. 2001, it moves to China...overnight over 300 jobs lost!! I see it now... Johson matthey is one of those company...

ZERO BS : You sound like you already know everything

Brock Elmore : How it’s Made with actual personality! Awesome, keep up the great work Scotty.

Dispie Dark : I made some 10x10cm boards at my electronics study, but that was pretty simple just simple 2 sided boards and we had to drill by hand. But this is mind blowing to see it on a scale like that. thanks for the tour !

Maxkil : wow, that is crazy... so complex,

renyin wang : You should go to the Huawei headquarter in Dongguang city! It amazing!

Руслан Андр : Ухх и клево же )) половину правда пришлось додумывать, ибо не понял.. Но супер!!

off roader : Really enjoyed this Scotty. You've produced content on par with the quality I would normally only be able to watch on a BBC television documentary. Thank you for your hard work and I look forward to seeing where you go next.

Eduardo Caporale : Muchas gracias por mostramos la fábrica, yo envió a esa empresa a fabricar mis PCBs. y los hacen muy bien. Un cordial saludo Eduardo Caporale, desde Mar del Plata, Argentina. ………………………… Thank you very much for showing the factory, I sent that company to manufacture my PCBs. and they do them very well. A warm greeting Eduardo Caporale, from Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Tarun D : Yaaa yaaa yaaa yaaa yaaa yaaa.. 😂😂😊👌

Catherine Green : Cool, thanks for sharing!!! I am really interested in PCB manufacturing. As I know, Shenzhen Mincom pcb manufacturer is great as well, hope someday you can make a review of it!!!

Dinanath kumar : Like a TV channels video super

Victor Panunzio : I freaking love this. The content, your sheer enthusiasm, everything in this channel is something I never knew I wanted or needed in my life. Thank you man. I’d love to see the process of making a GPU in a factory

Tormentor79 : 11:25 la chica ya no tenia mas ganas

juan perez : OYE GUEY DEJA HABLAR A LA CHICA...SEGUN TU NO SABES NADA DE ESTO Y APENAS LA DEJAS EXPLICAR

John : theres 3 kinds of holes yep

Zeki Ural : Kızın gideri var ..

Unnamed Review : Mannnn. Not that your editing was ever bad (it has always been really good) but this is just awesome. I love all the little effects that you put in. it really makes it very interesting to watch. Nice Job

L-Series : Lily is hot. Her difficulties don’t outshine her abilities.

3D Kiwi : Next time, stfu and let the cute girl talk...

tarnaka504 : this is why chaina is called "WORLDS FACTORY"...!!!

Irga Bima : she's not giving you tour, but it's you LOL :v